Pages Menu
TwitterRss
Categories Menu

Posted by on Jun 24, 2013 in London, Resources, Spatial Analysis, Video | 0 comments

Role of CyberGIS in Analysing Urban Data

Role of CyberGIS in Analysing Urban Data

This is a talk a gave in August 2012 on the use of “CyberGIS” for the analysis of urban data. CyberGIS is a term that covers the suit of tools that are being developed to use large-scale computing infrastructures for geographic data analysis. In my talk I demonstrate the ways that we at CASA have been grappling with the “big data” of cities ranging from transport to social...

Read More

Posted by on May 1, 2013 in Resources, Slideshow, Spatial Analysis, Visualisation | 1 comment

Visualising for Human Geography

Visualising for Human Geography

The publication of the International Benchmarking Review of UK Human Geography back in March was a major event for the discipline. The report concludes that the UK human geography community is setting the intellectual agenda for the subject and can therefore consider itself the best in the world. Whilst this is a great achievement, the “relative weakness in quantitative methods and GIS” (p16) was also highlighted. The authors flag the growing interest in data visualisation, and its value for information dissemination and impact, but suggest that human geographers may not be ahead of the curve in the same way as they are in other parts of the discipline. Compelling data visualisation is the key to communicating results from research widely and, perhaps most importantly, a means to inspire current and future students to work with quantitative data. More maps (and other visualisations) than ever are being produced, but many are methodologically flawed or misleading because the people who created them are great with complex software and data manipulation, but less good at...

Read More

Posted by on Nov 18, 2010 in Uncategorized | 0 comments

G-I-S State of Mind

For GIS nerds only: Just to prove that GIS users are “hip” and “cool” here is a video that takes a contemporary “rap” artist’s song and adapts it with GIS- specific lyrics. I really “dig” this, especially the “sweet” line about...

Read More

Posted by on Sep 27, 2010 in R Spatial | 7 comments

PNG  IHDRvF( IDATx̽i-Iu.kc(n㖱cde,!۲-*a,ym=2Zʆ=(r*[=>{ʌ{:bŊk}"2stU?~~fxGMoz^W( \r=n޼Wxӛބ-L&|k_c=]<;c=~po|#~z=\~=]/o~3AD96L&Q X,|q\p rl]ɵ/;)y.T|OKHOs; seT,^gpGΔDBT@΅~:^NZ 9 x)n/P;jA~{qƿumu!/}/_ŭCgt|_٪2Dr͍u~* r֒Ӻ7x ;I,[*3olEs9lll`ssׯ_G4k{!eNRossR&Roi]8!GۖIح[y>,KQTis V)zX,CUU-f v حSq?oapcR˓:܋}Wnp%Z7;c|4N^ua No'4r@upR b #Cȹ@%ns=p8cxy DcHIJ`2Ѭ&}e*Chemվ][}|{o{A:. MIJ&dFٝfˈ9W܌CeH׶W6iY44&[B/kQ7/vՌmS3tfTb4裆sS|*KʢEwGfYӲ ϙ1%<?߰h4v'RWiss;;;'P~z)F [9m[@VUh)ιV'h ,KTUD9 5t`V)KJ3Mt`Įԯ ۜdt6A6=O 9c!5ekcHjSP0s\E#.>POƂ }1p['y~"uNxNЀôv]"N)8qi5a0@MzEay=Hΐk(r V6L'v l_Np̬x^cCK9Ybah>WWQyF%BVԦ؏|kÑW[P̛0guJG gd:LFFba68JC;S$2ֲg[{ssn{>D{U|ú,γ:Ҵyig{϶s;y.@*\㭭ju,4DJkU{]yՋNG8LXB)g1o(g9j.֑d8 m'/@umPR+r+ X|H˱lU3~"dR8 mlwlzVE,HӭD 4hP`_g*deML 1j|4w8=*LXr,bOH"|>R*Lj{aR#DŜ`_1tRprMI@b뒅D 蕄"3L-z[c6ky^$m+UaC ќ& yp(Q$AiSD5ÅsX>J#vLu[+y"ЇH7nϳz ~$8'\fgWTnUkOi:)x%t,wU<XRհ`l ,(\stL9zoU& +ei9g&5W0%4$k#t/oZ8ȟ~a1ѵz gYs4ip>Ө':1<#Yg:S(uX sl zA'\\uetAh vҲ s4̠ug0Bz(v1t5KNc/ywTbcHRօv$bg8Ul8™ϘH(M0`*;R;&h-CCU1 n[G0qQQ:ܠ}v[Ӝ## xOK$ci o.JoLjc!; \(V.Y$fwav,kv,. uElu LI߲6 cY/}Һ$XfԉyЈ #Z'/ps\ ݊Y>F|C[ &>AGԈyZØh ҽعeJL,D*R:lĔ^gfF|~nܩ:4󄔇t\}p˜M ]&@QaE,M IirCMM-TLbգ9sJmbV0]4J蔮5!5M -Rl_8YsE+NCpUv/OͫӖ스ybU-Y*_;i ,u>I)u;xnB' )3Eː*`iMSs}[F7߳c^|M3V?GǖghJFdXRdEsxCTN*0ޡl|&xӰQ:b0f.($edEmەMl4Y{!ou8Df G85ڶ7j?7tn1.~x2g C6Q*Ȑ%eKFasV,s*CĢccr!!وQ\iDcv2;b|,j3{99e2ga5c Q'dpY'ntc 5 ..*g[֬΅c-] S6DdxOx. *fg+9XV.FZ7@JiN*؅Ts\T,W'WfluP>ݨWSJvp*7j <ƮBRPBm·c%9~r"mDX"Tk'Oeso D|GItp EAX8  "  () O@/  {Zy"4u'\F-MI{aik@#QEMylewp}# nW#*;ThxTi.-MFm0v#ybW'i6c5(pe$Sۧ3- J&Ҕʼnj-G,]+ .Re@$,' ** 3-M mKk\&jdOPvzgV{' 1[{]YWޮֺjgYIH*v4BS\T-rQ4u yW)"7ޱ>?.=xPT4@KrGɄWN-)>+W_2Ad`o<`807u(P#LRA%u .Sa=#W'&=4x`iiY9~VAU`l ~Si#U<v{sS5=- ̼hH2*gyMImB3᷵#j:xcMY-eSP@D֫ `gXd@>b,sz8T I ZB1e9&|ceҺ kmIZ'H*s^J3v*g|]v(Zrꢵ;,?v^+n cd4{[`O}rg ۶„L¬ r`W^{+ɼUi9&u|KxvP|?N#L@]sL9 :b6cUļ(bҢm<:}&1^B Df EE!IQʧ B}͹ȭ'.G {~YVEYuXQT:OĎ0J+2GZSNǚ85*؄ҭ%qЀXˋiZt,_.ݨ/JI;F9N.8s~xP;`Ѹ09{bIl~pF sZ^iBa5'c`<7xbo4,c˯eʁUAUQ*.mN]}Ermwe9d`.vps eb,Dl׽e^<=޻cE "ptԼcWB x!R4߀hE((b6ZYD +D/#AIO=hXQo3n9geSF^ׅ-'BUIIQ֩_k;-i(!~h"G>-ےTʜk`<9 pv\r`}ՙ^y~S} =l ʘD:0b6! e(jv0<MYYӱȉn95sV]s6ʮa l*l ^^,!X7.|BmA7p'LL| h-xnp9 M]Q4uUQ&n0E'Ufo 湲LYp/% Qw!e\r U;xc& *XW) rtbGsJLuF[%=9X&Җ<$u,)r 'NDJ&?yT>`!. 5 .Mph)&oA`|Qr `ςatZG9 z餠(}+`:DXԍ VzaO:Nz fU~݈Ƃ@1{~b\YʵwvAyk9P \؛RkmM.37eEMsB#aqv?(ɡ^xjo*oSDHӱòN @V@1,3 j`}9\i;f-dA'%ӶbUAج F?Nߌ4<ᖻVlCnfnL^a_DlKTEi_9ssnR`&Zpn.ńUXmi{Qt/Oy^Q-GAv̜їxN4@lSi!о'_u,r=(ɏfReà$;DkښCK<шHx;[.MJ6%`OK]+Г_Vkt4+]}_:sm.;?)c(j9$7YW1nZmʭNՃU.nTgp1u1@anYv0cAlZTItks ˨ e xQPt ܪ&+Hhf]̓K*u֠D+Qf\Yn>[[ 92`g4j:IJ4f"TDKV.KSQX4KVEre_hx-kc.YuEwn*"9"\. !U??΅ y)pw@Zl J< }> ۨ`ز5«tPI{\8C|`#Hzmp>MqcީOh= ں\(4y$q3ՐKl׹&iZNŶk3)igPp(  z,[j˟w%93޴iӛlhT}F=L(P7uɜkdF\Ҧ WА1)8[w HtN˩*^yU]X5}VĺdՊ'7ab_Pl1Ǎ}!LCc) #Y0<;<}"s,O~\㙃9&]_HZJ/6s[ƙRLfNlOήT:#5f{Pp֠ߎힵCA))?Qb IDAT7ӍdܢӤKtVR3iG  ei-nbet+^ȁ\c9෮\:Aj?]Q4 r{P;'oL0YĠ:U-6tdN׶xgP8B"̳3}7 rRC:e[WYidV'F6 fYٵu-kx~#2ᕰz (@i'k.;$3"`1b$ktr鼰pC!s_ +ƠBC )V3ܥR ׏؟51:vzHM^[O_U;K^U3wPx7r^4}%4!+f@@Q }5 %8&Q CғYYx~[yk 2șm9@呈0X4dؤ\p؆1Nɷ})J2$BYj36FVҰݤLSZq!|tDpR`r,wʂ9(1x`WT6>I'yZuj |g(RH&x]9xV#󱀵yvg vF%F.lPS_aVMx0@ga X2ɋD\Xޘ8盖l>="JUQF^"U{^UbR8aCϗYV@ W2{ȞM3_̩[}9 pľ( ze_lV[)/6K1Om @\ou/ Wm/ur@Km+YTʅ<F?W0=Ӑ6L'phB@T.R-^UcK94"'Z+E RL F U 䰣8hZ150W!ߟ9ܱO&,4덨57Gs̹\h,Y35eqv+4RF'Y+ K ڿW6EFxqY3E:kIpnkotxOFNir..+5%ͫT QDXNf{ aƬpfN qv#ܘ:G-&W@^U-:2>(Ǭ󂘯аMͱawxyЈgªk]>6-Ε0)ؕဓл<|AqHWlv1[%o*gA`W@̕l.9#` l<:Xk}HXp9$Oe^"{p( (.j"$S|~I@x`Xi1W(ielE5 Y:@s Y72\^q:Ŋ!89>s]9 0 Ǻ&Z"Q.៘gflfvGԽ)S[ 0ׇsAaj97p#~9LL픶5Fr)$v;(sx-U7q>D8\WK$E:++N9~cPn%EW rc"BZ2_tpORv6A{χg¢ z~}Vĉ9{[v,;$2HCm&ca~qyt_=|?msx]#u:iU`9 > EQ`4o;>O;Ԟ-DC1~؏/x߼-> C|?~7~ox:E9T[Ǔ!wmKÒ)/9]ioaLDhYΰ%lQB;x1821o^XS/A 'd!xYhULix $Ȗ~a'/0!mE Nܜw*sb00r&OV28{9ĩaD az8ŵc0֡m+(֙~8>Z (]͊$o96V@yOJ@hjZ8noZ/4HRk?%=Һit>Gگŋ'<ʕ+G>Żn/'z X6SٵlAQ-z1p@sV\vG]wnV fjGE'8b#^Jd<c4nC1=k{cA}:ƀľh%{f@YC(2s95X0`{b-""%^( :V| ̫ ~kZP~Q78>dDͫ~{Yf\85OɳFygg8/ iC(RGQ݈l>OElFHk6S~ԍwm2p.*h`: 7~:ptϝ wlbXdX,{zMQU*+PQ`&,(gs3ҩBr<aV3Iqt'2!&>b}HYlҲf –+}gmo-3oFe]:oUUG~G sK_z׻po;/i|c;N ~pu|___*|A\t g?ø~_W4{NeY-oy ~??W4M|+ կ{d>^{a[")2̩NŒ] :JRVfi)+}.d^t3TZR7š?Y;0\ B~~e*%oIr' mΡn3;/S|eQus|3ӟ4\y&z!_Eܼyۿ xꩧ/{?(??ׯ_ǿb<~W?s?1X,/|O} ַO=~~ .]G?Q1LpU|_ťK/{Z+UsLwmcv5VMmJ(@ezY.ï=}G|6ͬY.WPc'n!hpVCdXleű}rxj#䜜@WÀ9&L<b-M ڵ)Of%3(7iG MrxC) fb=ykWqyfIdXGUDYrS{!s1 ɔh "-YO͛J'z##;(#pO\粺. Е\j7A=p6ڙ'J4[>'OCcKzf޹Dšcңnd2vN󓦟)fu!uVNOt4ӹ%ݲw;xv 3{ڈt!ut|~;;;ٟY6>K_ykmnn8>|_ǧ>)][V|_+Ww~w??1,"|>ǟc8b{{y{ַ{백sk_oooXK$e U=i]ֺD_}č):5@ʁ=OGN@HkC?}D3E5|vq{.|+ _J[ [@!}|$zT߾>\D֮6)׶{D05֓W8F1S)! #Fyi_m,38,W#Q2(vviT./.%s7f[qykjl L .9 9O_&c}<6m9cСC1" ,u ujQ ~W7w##l l ziQd[@U,!Zh5ssy ?^Se&w~5xz*fMa} #nR4E+'1!as2qM7#D(<.+ sg+n-񉈳H!q  6Z-DŽ|z'Eeퟒ=Õ9hg?IX7UCFJ pM<bx^Ҡ$LhA,oYޮpL?ZDQgi!%agIڞYFbKC֠;T M๪Jufw6 ƣ+=|D~^AX4MkDfN+%F20j䶆SФ\?ٮzvbbGJ buˤtHv6$C&_AE'6/NɔK7xbo0\#o򻻻8}tD&}Q|;|ssB7h>7M<׿X,?looę3g򺵵{/^נx+_)e~ZcA"o@_'{lr9-k;uYg wdžs=PN|/{υOPHqЪʐ?"d^K=3r8sf9۟ٛ\ٟ}rZ } }n8ur卋|KA Lv,e%|!a hklx)2g6m 6w0(zWp$۶ eMZ@&R^5?=wQX&{ERmNC:1$v9N&%w6E 96wp~' T MY yN[)T>1FLvJfQЭQ ~Z;eQN|.V3q(yZ;9$l{@thD9 j^g 20$ͲOZZ|9I""o6>O( , \tIpϟŋ|"Zߋ|#/y;?A??h4y\"t[+"]u0cnƍ8>>lkٖL&)^|k/;lB"sl(Oʕcw CpF 7w[XS;=F|o2]ใ9uA0 ܵ; 9\?aX4\1 IҞ }lKS021 mۓ0bZ-3]@wnL 7v0âjhՆZ[ ڔtVj[0)I 8I)!+|+UlaյOzF"*lNg`)ڄ~i]Q;~^~jϫXZv1_^-\ghcl*fr ~Ed#R>EfvNv^s[=,\)j켎 c&L<:> }n\Ƌ)o!מCVXfail료sHοrk}),Z[I ӣ U[Z. Pu:Osdhh߬8Q;5,qơi t^F!fU43Q;=3d<׎n["=ןd޺4%J"lKS}o lJ#| ]#P fxLAW!e # d9`' yi3ϕx֒Jl!VY΀oњrR.n⧾{ľ|*vES?C<ír/^įʯ <>)f.-nKiuŴ9TNnz:+eܛ?Z#'&]O,r1qaFAsRNbycG %mho߰a'sܜ؟,0 G(ȳnaGNDӲ/˳ﲻpZ$XXn)@F؛3^ڈzS8ϱ?RFMfB7 끉$_ $y&k7GVXtPyFbzcOy8hACe[,s{d投P8q *ѿPWtZ H `ОSƥ뚿9L;"`J ~Fy;Ν>PGb`g,UE=, 7x<3V1 MtH|x(ov{G,í`5,\Q[2Tyy. sNwҀ*|*9߷jUu{iWkUdME!/e*UUaV7?;BL=?@j܎1P|y/#m֬A4 $Bp^Q ڡY8bW_=ksN D8֘]=˶ S=:BH ~IxLbgy(6,{$`RmByp@9w?zE<*e`0 jz9ý9.P0c+_6lx@3/?I HZ +#=` m,OGuvL E#ggVV\Fo4jEX2Gzt[[PA?[<_.B]oݳ:o摵W"9y Ki 3: TMR{ö+ x~pVȋ{b\L>YJ9hrBU=߲+9^B+:auW$+Dj﷋I6MH܏gO*@B-pY%Q4BTICD-vѭD+be+T!C_Fm9cϚi<;)uI-;7E$iY[L|leg)Q<÷25_ %L<DH' l#gR^AaI .PU%f f (TƮEʜAsj@S޶%M JµI#.q2"3W"D[pd#`VCd X!F>B鍼 : )j!EvD_tk!= LL8@S' @5'[LΝʇOzƫشI36~A]z&O3vFTuBF16(BQ@VM5mnM_@QŜd(>ÊpmʝoaF3{WfAUf-c8c_,%ݻ7\&Ο٧=[.'2zА?h9'5 E+ z^l]ޟs](9ZEҼmהhw]uς´T6)Gs|;G8=oIn82f+5 0˜Ydyi;<>=D٫Sod>z +bWղOJ3Me 2]Nj%>71jhMl]zm䞂<"OhP\&߂CT6q eLuI,3"0bPYΘ$7 2uGjJJ/hk%kR[AL'v-v%%9O%wp N ^йVOyڭļ݋$:g#$8δG*N̍{j_mF=;hesEvї"'$ў6[u׵[wU绶+|wpvru|pW.' !#r-N6522z]miH[FSDib.◶j7NlWdtKYyno\>5Ullt%F2(hm Cz0A? 2AY80;p.8+E=h鼁o|[խ-9̳Sv?ud&$Z|cE}ۼ̫vA_>|v<,J%ohu[Cm?"Uv๗ԍRl> 8K%X⃴zҩ1o"eV)sIb7-[[zB\&[I1I!cu=&e)p I>쉳zoDis&rU nGpaI#>ōi]^H9Սae&8B8vՕXl]4.r?+0R"'^<Ŀ#̖U4yH r1ٴ:CG yb0 #@}X̲?\xrZHWRRVS~eid}epca/E0 Zm{0@pn4뱲^"*&ͫ.VF 5h+(`s1fΐ-M<(딗f}͘/M4^~y} H6||Z8$6d?5tD|Yc/)kI? =7C9ίllRp1-pߗ𩝧Z޾EUVAWqhgGHy`+q+)$KamH Β iCO ,cxL 2~&!@O9D IDAT׺%cK7n1HXBBӼ&u]+#@VnSΖD9( .BgpPaQwK yBd'^n4AYB.^D 7d7W8P9V+|k_wW|k&c[ (?O˿˸~:h c\[ 3{ V> )vM$6lr.5+P3"$_D8YT2ʚv94G ^˨>^SK5 Rդ~F]*]QsM;`O1O%.f־oN(Jl`9+^5fɵGleKJt+Ulq I ༨YP Vg_S܃^Dʛm@} b=6sv*Q]@,bp!( <`Y(6g<]_VeoDReϏS b l b6Me/S`´i *˲kd2Ç/IIr )bauQX>!!(uk֕uҊI{k ;-/Ubhݧ:0!9lE y7CS"bZ֘'h嗥 /_7Ƹy8DCI).j bn=~3dWyMmdeQKO´1q}cG&i(pQYvHZ-ϣvyR[޵<$sOqx0 zX}_K"Knn+Ҥћ2^l.8Px dh[8 O}Y)2:ji`L~9x  =3A3żDNe xEdXYC3Io Qvn9֩W6Yu3nnm]ȁ@rWx3F8߬'\!,EY˼ɟ|מی'tZ$4yNxf7q~tu>R&zzg5g5Ӑ L,o'=f;Ҷ|2pc7~.ו.ʿi=ϛU S}ڌ?97bļDaHqĎ,]QZ"趁K^MFB2qpV(x-yN/ǘkWG/k6IDY@ZJfUNוR {NNuΧDx]\1 e6A38)YY~) 8 fsU Rou´|Zar27/@a/ǎ AF}+leNxJ$:rU1be+if~G; m`Y`yF4p[|2mDg%#^,*ƽNeuõY8a+ ͕ie"RxVr&`030C5T+cp^G}IAQ7 2 r ;6j̞& O>a+ C(MD -#@Y5>BKmՠH5hVdd#G3h7APB!mB?Klǿ|х}"~(5V&s]9c_'7Hƾʰ|mC`_Ć;qJq}◞]&~Yg~)_G+1 ]< &%\v;.i__GUU-ɟ ~7/R,!P['.2}31ӕ|]c!m Ɔtэ=L(+Ͳlh*f䝔F~R3bǥ/{]3M4'2FuRvL 6 ߏ8]]ܱ-b|[Vx|b,a/rߓ[k]:/[ſaDX!BMQ+,__<}Vh X֊YQދ*:ɗgr1(cj'+BM&<\_O\I۬mb.fS x0F|wD-؅>4}"K"1]hl ñ1Խz!1Su=;ƣ1nDi #`i!>$b"GRy| %&FZqCxcu}1nE|q/N/`w 0-jdeF ƹݔ9epQ8[8^TjV5ʪƵab<vݠ7Hȫy1k+s}a,>$Ybqs7!T ^w6ɑi ,JC0-*wD[~78;6WY?~4O$N0АqkP}]Bm}>WFTne`j&3em@yk !(|iMQ H8pt*|h[ ,/_g /Y'xzc= fsRju`Ibc} uQ{u#6> -onLoWn_Wa6k6֘Muv>03,&?k76ϜC7b֚2$zgkrŽQAjؽw(!eӆ$%WQlPW}Ed_}&1Dm^ܕ\&^?Ai<, bʠ`i@8]֘*5Kh_ ƪb,$\8}x;.s@/O1F(Y/,Et;XwweOӄިҠ9PwƖ89 :xa0NQMubQG[;wyeUepI~ceZX $i; 06ZYUxr . '%&FnߔǼ Qb49N~_jIiz! %V5Շqm$>'H8w쀬u2˲Ƃy[4@#}el^hP@3Ep8Lq}ӕ(ۤMy/À͓N!)= d  >]Ng0::t]1r]L:~T10ׇû>8*~T=@7Rb U pY^2EB;= ӕIP}O "23'0_ sƻ0g̍ @87'W]  gl0U,9#eqG3U.ԻU5޹{= )wzs<hZUHZ pzq<+S}Bruh=3@!wNL3麌!|K/J 9ꄰ8(r ܤGO`t jv0]5/C7h1F T۽7n0%,;waIU_]^U1!EqN Ṷ'yA6xVbY+pxGwO'ubQTpqow^ֵ1\A^Jr8Uy8s׀ !FQd,JildOЫl8p4z̋}NuouBWx0-*CD4 AG 4 I[w= $I~SPP@Z6g/Sr0ZXB>Ht& RiPO NVz]Q`Y7ޞ2ᥟX꣘=~pon}n3iI3f#+2nzvJ6!@Hpywt^t޼0>Oj\`ocux PANF3n 3\@K<_՘(m;<u68/ȀNf+Npdox 7@hJQ@.;5Z_)>ݠ,W5? G2[?в4XXt4SW[ǎHdϧj=[⹫@-k5'b&IO- [nyQCih=`@e ce hxB>S ɞjo$E`lCtCQ5_$ ٲF4o~?к0JOrCX7&C0ݧQ<6r IDATQ,^6;f@,] d:]tx(@꺴 t/sά? \}JgT^禩 ֘4ye F/պ΋:$\QMK^Bxz銷]/5 KY*hwe6+4Zp#! ^j#eǏ.PhEI%;28>_lV`o{8^Jǜ#_@s{|G:-4q$5;cYb婒;çHe/d{C9ݡyJHj9_M8_:}u\_o^CG86L *Hl~?37n`(Ork Ajơ1P`b^A5U:͵hz) lQ{[xĆ+k -Z~%[?_}eYQSW^/vxyxb!'M;#ʺ|b#`L1$mdQ4 / oce$cgx剥X䰫0LiEctw:ъHIeZPX"[ʰdq)1{BN@mn1i[ų7നՀQ.-8rY(oRiו.?qεl/'xӳe`)*.xLSLU.p| ~5˳vZ0^_#81%diaVT#^nN(˷O+/޸NwYrd\/m!WM>bUT="˩&ꨍAYUHD>Cˈt)S*((7OZQjr50ǝM- %!'-U'$D= s-fKGUI/m}lUc>vFo€:+$qq RL')VmV)aFT˜BlIp?]uȝNu(_1L-.h"29GˆAm54Έq!OF5ƈ4 caN ,yk,1p׳N~FI|yma@+ځv׍ݻ9Eԁ\˨"ʙ~GO{DnR,![&N3t`3ՃĮ|3i_8}8!3=O^/|<3 ~FxcxH|Q'S6y`ZTZLq.d:r:sM_23[8 JCm|I~gUiH2qZʎ;-SqR] %V/_5>8/>}Z,Z]2x^L[CyxzkE]+{ۦmw$OŮ$ޭ+biO|m 6{ bJ{/Vj|[D<1X\7D{}C3W͓6o.Q"۶A$ g<( mgFIПAOnFl{ĩ#[<+c GqWyNmn\p3(yhz#V2*pb3Ӌ /R ɛ^vNq'a ނk͗E $y7pV}$|QH%L!fI^^$Zikc<eO> %}JG _>!F7*c]6p9"MנE9뿆ϻT&Ī ü1xq^QevB a/JŷX{eUM)뫎T6Vg?jz"DEOlo&Kr:&mWlj{ˇN_xY0Օ.newu_@2AJXv<׾5|`Ƴ>Vm;C#!#hDB4}}m]ŮmSJs!ч?a{N(x0@pKAn e0wX@ ~%Sρ $ke2a>-D)$4J5&B\ Dp,UYmgMC*C8.S<s; LGjנ˶g%o8sW'H)$Ѱ Gּ~E{)0̛7$vl5>ǟhy4-y& )`ñ1x4)T7V59e?Ii2?MeE?-H'c z-_%ʲh4p8Gk `WW;crS1߷Y ovm#!jѿrUY 9 h@= |_بqh/u_2T?'sތSt^^{` E=Qpv,+rg%o 5 t(76DsWݸ>p7e`<OˇX+LADd]~#>#$ NP:8F/Y `plǧ TuS 6riBuuC&=>:! jKavzx<30aMswxd̋ŪD?ϛ_Tմ+耇>4qk([#o9{%?f# a'8]V#!OQFċ//EۊFT-[6Et AӺs,:DckL:E;[TX 3y,i pF˓D@D~l^^*5?ӑ= &XPIfP.ZSW0=ϗZ0\v^!MuH{͑'DŢdDZR@ =$uHcg"E20 A3ܾw!2 AW^O}Jkjm|^[2aY`ju52$, 8/*`0@A 4A#[ еu )$/bg q^眹s{mG.EZ~<+\DByT HBz롟QH: s|bm<.K9[8FPy>M*qYbRD7CST:Y +3X)wxRphQc{dmap>-!BCQ.8O5(lTPzX'X9N/\Uz;Dhg?/&suMEp4@~!-3-0jfYg7RTvs(PZi OEdL1 i^{/$Ipu=~.զ_XԌ`geuvEºab|>ecD}񬔈FmL58%P#FNCsQRhN'PqTO>*WK>Z՞PmB:ų1~3|e}9HU+c&t}c dYA/ 3<("<%Ɇ&=z"‹~K(%v<܎KC]vi>j/zv $F1VwbY'f.J,WU&QYTMdok4ADv ΋Es0qkƞ\aZyXh|w[  fc[62$qSPߛeֵ"z]Է)EQ_*^z%|sCUU(hkzwY(maZҺ:ݛƓ . vQw*t/m80ųVgr7ȰƂ8Y4HwXC̷'g+ ˄byv g*;lu~@g͇}řuN3r< u N 9(LvuC7TT:NM v@=3, xYcN`^5O2Pc h$&>y};U5>S0Lv1*^wdGK}4+O<}NHyUq9u "dˑ"`\݇؆S:k[%u;\| %GUǎ7ԭN6YU< S<65VU4Ft0ڎ,Nّbmnۇ{yҼ1f Sn9&=#e1mll٘i==t')l"[vv՝e eY{NOO߄I( "vH\,b lJ"wuw^SmUep#(Lwo=$lH-Rb.p6<Ceu^5uK(Ok`qΗD{goNW0W]FF19Von]uH4:6)6Gm i 2/<;O VϔS3IEgF^yk,6iS!2Q 1 pc'FMBE8'{^cƴz-(Mu:|9Z!W6𬗜[YsAIt88㫇f_9:/pc#qx#'ر5 l4ECU7~X7/~z臅ŪjPW5n5Qm[7) g|h,A3! !e2-"gg_dk{/bIlF#QL2ϗp&a#m-ac>=VMKvDRNZ&bL4W@  Xք+)9.1Dud0nja ER5/1|OiS;0ciIsGOVtp!HFMqu1lh)8y +`|JڀI_2bcb` %# W%aϰpyaΰv1a0#Fc).ٷq@\Dn'`(8 (*M iCӸe-֋lF;01+bꄠ^E:h׶'?Fj=K;'<=[xEY @7Mloo/lI<K `gA4@/eeR]]H[ZzN7yܸ#K~_ 3w0jrU߿WlbtXux<&V`A_c6A>%sV>h4Ӡ|@`Z)I-bepleU;Z o^EL]DWðhqUyuҶ.|>ǝ;w/ܾ}u]իWADXV{.ZXOI5GLqqpި_D^ke{퐋m9,Σ)MWVu(:IM+#PPGQg~h[4Q/E/%Ծ0n&4 *._4hZ.׿sܺu ^; y7|_pxxg}kݻo}[r }]|_%c|8<<׿u|sիWg}wO[\ IEbEkCs;_oƁ*(GRj CAߑe +|Me`P#AZ~OqT}P-_WKSЁMM8]3J2.fBhs|.3PO76J^8/afyXUʸ*v L9ܔ/K$ q}#7m#KzÁv o&hr0oJ 'BJY_SljȤi fõj0hRWeii-GYT3Gz$m/ ]2؄/b*c=zo~R#E/| H#MS[_Uܺu :x ܼySg?YooqttbS|_p87 ?FC/"^|E[^x;;;Q!l u"s]M<fbPb: Z%3Έٻ !/Gx;©!9&XM}Fq ZO#j~5`sBR$ dQzm6LAn5G6p0%8gXTQ󺪆ZN&Ôƃ ªn`PQtQ;1jٕ6`UxxR cO R)KJ®)NK/CFU1+j V܄-pp@61]ʮ̤R";HqQ+C|}&K]8b]elUfH*zo dY7|^u]cEQ0{{{fX.Nxg$ 1<f&l2<<<ݻw\.QUvvv EQsбIHAa䎈3#?>C#xOq4t4sn8 QHNϸ0,ڙ6LS NJHčeu{bI(qs˦bAw;]5sYIʙn=ZTaz1 nXG8tk?^MO b#]JNLE 6ULK w yUt4K%WTN҆N%v)4AMp> ̾LQTt# M fg$~4ê37@iB_]<Υ&9pZ,Gg <:/Td2 7CZTbY!W9g|oN-ۭt!Q;neD*5}%=LxjaoDWLTOg}j3K28Hn،ADs{Ky7u€۶x0_՘̅qԨޫb^/^:3n?2i4MG"B$q @[i3kk ,Bo=zAe?#^xY9$i655u]* Cssc$OHTgeV,lRACЉQ8C4QPҤ7I,hS kfL5B [zޜ_ˀ3rT /G2"FgP Z,YB66Z $ҹ̀TY?aUָ8!r|UqA饯'R]7yrrJv#2r4˃Kѽ R\xBJ %E[Gc]ZĘH{T;. |_࿾t$A<M"u#j 79bQy+yuku΋y<&|-*bȑ]heQ/`yR)I PaO^/]Ǯ*gN3T֮i{.Ȩ~RfMzK) Qͮ~i;]SUU8::O?d4Mq )i}0[W݄OE׵מ9Ya|B“8:.pIar/ L5AF*5\UHRy A@Ls:pbO%ϋmގ>k]V5.+fLJxpTb* H"LF'G[8 ~ɧ巴D);mX,Wxxۏp:bhRV51M<@W }h!\7gܢU4^>ɐg'KO^hI\899mSߦxVvG;=S砊vM9}8yz(D=c4Iw ʕ+L& xw0qm\v 7n۷1N#MSڵkN>NOOq]ܼy{{{x\.qm).žǀ^=^uqc'WhTw/Qj̸!ߓAɊ̄',B{ˑ[v'!Pk29t^\>!8Oŗ&o/qs7sEg]|ۇ]۔lem |gh'#ĺ븾?J9K˒(HeeyS9 ,> s+8??__`2籷o^y|c{Xݒ\[{n- t=A=.,a%!R1$i3U, (Wsξow5X+b2ofz_&bŊ+bE< ׯgA D+yXn^ Eڱj)AEn9ʩ6&2E{ PHq4:(ֱ(N' |&8\-[A0|2u #l NJ (4>A7qda*!$ l.+D$:ŲBZH=,*Q~B'sBxi 2&Y SڙUYBe:FXi#׫ӈNX~E7czu4FۧRBDg%ȣ[t}=}vx%ۻ'ߊ?sٲ:ldg<((BHT/V?/s׎m-aNgU  Y*1,#0'N1ޔR}﷧7`J 5֗Hb Ș]j2Gy#u_KZ!EsriK9慘y TJo&ii~j!A@J8߿㳥xyiBra uw,k5ؿ~3غXt-&5՛'xo@ D~>zrß㵠|2f8U qnڢFTрEk`̽iO+c\!1 6WJv,UP EeC,kJO{&ğ`FQ+9YxVy}04lDzK5\Wd TI%Rp\v\$䗨kP:i/R1Ns{ *OG-kYPR?M3oyh(XFŽ -5;MPhǻ,*l3 YyǩƬNao P8<8ŭ dp8Jy幽DzNE4oPee8\7M)`+*cGgZ/+m;7!9CyI**>&8ZQ՘zyɝ+rI41`H<(<'+bxqtC9γ~L'* B.mt5zҗ~g>(ꫯ+_ >Jr2&OIR4!UZupP:ẝXT/a^-3gВ(@]­Bb̄|`o#GbߪE90hF^b0 TN.M|d㉧7d"{(JKhp `V:dZ y`KtRee6}ܸ}",pig[M (=ہk{T/w{0-C(kԵx_ҷyF|׻c9;=M[/7k(CΨy"П@xo =<%feWF5+¼qhnS>Fid,MԚ[.KxjIR:֨dQorc57RKK0.}Q`&Zl":0[)wY?I휊}yn BP-}**qR7]|sɉ;o\6~g~< x |_ /Q=iD* g(yzWc{#ey{JЛ{ 5(H8È8] &m{y? UဝOQz)%`yt2tejP†=grm5^)<ћJRDԼ2g~V0ݺsE dIyƓm`։u[Nx&^ 5z->ⳟ,}Y ʲvwwADEp?6;JzH5%)t{hb=['2v<0ٲ|_T|k(wϞa}79rv1\9pmwaq/qt6&R 6$s˂haFf2\g Ta`KPyZeYEP IK#9s&iV.*9ܚ  [Tp"y}\GY FTȁ Bm-}d`ꦻ9W?$pegBCa*SAE l{iR*r~UӾGo&-]Xuvܒl!e%[FR=zC˥o%H]Qh iUII`mH2 Ǯ3ZXTNNƦZۀbox9H% p1+ g"c|0Z&:`.xJG'Bѝ\o՗4`LHI:8'ߠj̡,+9% M ¬F7s z y~bz%SBnyQ`KO=H=Hl='l IDAT}qwz0%2 , G,S #-ʸ`O0lS_<HRanOm˩,E10nYCh::ߩY3bB d @t  iݨÞLݔF*&?!IA=|aRÝD /Y$~:7p]J˳pNnXEx$jbծl_ ,8-9~)V5(/2df[لJ(TD|[^z%QXFphXM"w w~@y8,P"tpVXor&֠Y719{, "{{)"/55a2aC z`0T ;v9}'VOA:^~|xI{$GZ k]ZERZaO H2e@]}Ɖf?whi7b6Kw2Aꕷʿi:+毺zmBolD$; }ՆkbG @F)*з8㣭1)Qo EY;SY~L ^UKi`CM,RVzuV>>ڸm2L+>)k i M.o00/;08^nLUJ+$XVR_d]uB,*y0ì,K@I7Y6*jxߢdAS>?pU^B( Ӻi$Aju=PV8kNX_BVtIEÉsòOpwBS^΅ݛAhR{N# ^:V?VODZBqn$m(HwwVXDZi ƣ+.1gL3?,w' `R\jFt$4@UToS*B?<ޠX5Nfn^|C iw镛2pJM{ؾUCOY]Ҕ#&~3xCpxѶmpWdjvF`$Ai$FM@s ~̨ЀeB ߽W{:N?^ɝYt讞mA#dV YN[p'YQ9BNXta )2իWr4œO>'x"!m+ V20QWEb஋|v+ tg1%]h]܅ߋ;)#FVD?7R~Z6giO3r%xdc@UfgZFO}[:g1Nf([v%؉H %$VUm;t[(v\JFƬLDdxpԉ-2^XEyNSaEa/dQYY ,3W 8=!Mr%-b[Gʲ=d{ 'ѐzcmM, =*Y)B[=Y%ly%),'\0?,.3D/AtpLwXZq:$e%:_04ϡkD'PW %]cA-yJ}͈y<.5y֭8-'\gxnp}3k._bA5} h8ܠ#u=#ԃ{qV?v귋.z-e}yBfLw%Ͷ|au0B`V֍ʻuC[2P&~.+EGE\Zaum )l 3d7?U )h'r`pu3G?O1u$O}7>,'i3ۆ*C f';ZX^3o\ v_ @X릾٬Œ-)F;cL $]}' v7r<^w$v%]Llzhm$ì?Yyr`Nf%Ng%L462m8Z(==-2ϢK7m#&>tþʿ:V?$>׬ FP φϲR@?-gdQ@\ʯkcm<3?R$x&Ç.;ʪ][wC&m}cc ,|&4(ke0/jIar6|id]FUZ7@X̧ dzPo= 1,%rb]+%rJ0[Vf@N~DVm;G9!^jQgI8S&JKQ'%8Tz=Vȳ3 ef!q x G&f H>;֙g.pY -+ifek{j_MVAܷe"˨W/6e#z63?J31}]]Zx/G>'V;s^BFo?knBU,`ViVliX*Vu}.E+QT w^$ǩj%8gzW\Aoys7&Xu_Qeh`"ɞe(1%,jF.n/}"n>7{ XV8()i (j,[{;eSd8eUcK7kbxHZAlzVBx"qyRy þ n(]4z;#%G!(izEc!wxdpZϱInuҽ]iB.1I dH >#k$([䙈[71x&^$Ѓ8@݂ ˢ=<d)p} 2&_VlY;!(+˕dF8_>6wFL"|~- {@WR^xY. p|:eCtd/!)g7BUXJ89N&2ZSJYbgRd^U+vNlp4E2Q'@)[=_Ø*rk|twֶkZ_AWE/OqmgEɢBF:xtG϶9@eW]yIMo*6«2ن2huEbڪm#6eG*Z?xDֲה,o$ )XV Bɳu?2k_k1 7tiY[9^<{L῿|A\M9!Zfy6 fYi~hPa pTY,>*J0-^ RzwvS_ͅ&7ݙG >,k\+ְ~D}=Sv;5@Z5%D+P@I^_!KU8UޠFv奰؀0'vg{=zK|iCG[Ư!,^() *pBDTbGvnrl_ 5kҤ3,>?ӣC iyسЈEstE~\y-(M{K+_gaMfX,^,14¼h|^ޢtz"P49}AEb*9x"(Ǥ!]$\4 V s yz<'JW[+1@a3!,j2iAЁ-URL}qH'%tR̄X²Q-v v!UӚ@㥲{"v}nKVA\⬂ݎB4l |HGDak 2`E"}2y.}{ז {ox9eiC3k]ȥ"o9AOC*i\|~3:OwIytw|ɥBҁ:Ҥi6&E+; ,YJ [@:,~r# ZBX'jN^>oD ԭ[+$$Gs>X7YnDv[õucVpn-:s/KVe<i hx dcQWe6ǥ7HLU΂ukBk] J\u«GkD%xM@ku[Ap;3/C6T{rq"_hJܗ } rAg%̺032<*IF=oKʉDdQl^"Oi|s6KlXBDk&P8,qDOpYFY!Uv}y؜ྥE""2n66;7\:O=<hlR =kJA=%&xT(_>|S/404MC K  '4mYNLܻ:yuޏ%LySa(>q=y?6j~r%zƞǮ8Zp?H?4:S$$\#yi.S"̭a"%7M4:ꬔǘB6s;֩X]ivs&&x#F\ r\)w&vy͡qzʢ{_ ^ָu:$ɳ;-kmpؼ>jA<  ve EI!7` ?-6e00sx#1Hac\FE}^+q~;V fNЂFe ۥYpB/AN#if aR]dV_?aqcac-b:k'6% ^l g~ggY t( O~0Kޖb[Y_>cB/iCJ5׵~u[nɱYV?||?XfbF,;ͳL-h}"iھƍ'? NNN888z=<.^؊K֩S۳Xea4un;Q6anU%"|ԎҜ-JYGhGGg);5(Z:6֪ v//AēA;KaUx- ?|ofV֩s"g7oQH{0h/s8|6N5R J@³=:[ ë=<]NRG},aXRBWrsLH%J2Ͽ1' E9i^\-MsX^:մt3'.x ^.O8,0+*}mGgF,T^XL2cqIIRCm_g|ҎICX żtL Be1TbQؤ! xͿo g6qh3[Mӄ qmomUAر(15]C`uG̿TJ͛3];PR:121jѤ*(Ufx na [^7=3:Õam<Fx0LNTlm G[t˕X cUͧ4x8ۏ+|_Б=/ EQt7oĵkGGC?m#?a.WJ)bFc[E]ѳbVyCF `6lhtFbd¿M8noY'exjpp7. ?RLcHƛudz.d5x& "rj\{ w~tO<(f1©k2R 13:k ,&-uAClYcP+{L-3|eJUN A% (Ӳ=8["3<G 8ʕJcD3HJrʒypiGsT {VUUbX7(.$јBĢlF켍:t |1Eu\ ߽=kLnrʆMLS 0aiΕg%ӅƎ+k/D[[&JFY>OMlN Qy3=zso^do-CP+buh(}xUۮk󷱲 {7x^E¶u.Z!~/| PJ!2|ӟoo_:zꩵUyU;ѓ8DMP|gIXK-31#J18P4g$X_Q?1擛Gsg1]< qMrtHߌ9Ҹ)(3zS̓R,2#q58vo%q PEY0AGjp6/>XeE/h/B})Hrie[F2s:V 4dhhq($)pigR7m*qc8'L { =…aT†Du1y}x`sBvU2Px-r`IE?[Te>5q4]CGç+K/Y(y;'x)'gtWn ) ]gˇyJzY╛',QJW鸟NWvfAO;MҺ3̊ `y9j` nl8'2Y!"di $ lJȒuRg}lmo꭬yK_!'k˷* b~.1]> oC*!ӅAwUj!ϡj˪{m<쳸}6/"ysɷP1~3: 鴡ƞeG뤋[ /_`ZVy|c〔7@8:44 JDna,@2+ 9pH_q>A#t&:h}&;eI?.޶6  '' (JOȜsvțn~ ]UQT &{,J1r疦>YGK27F)$ y$`τ,F9nOJ[kOx "L>N\cF 56}SJ7k9XX_fE; <}(svFfJCQO.tV &"J)$Ra4M"KޯWP 'Kb%(lҔ>cysm3PjNvMdF^mkخVVgn[ x>Q?k#o2}YWu}i[w箲mp:"x^/\˗/,//?3o>O4 y 21&,8(`,.W!e0vȴFqhK`!`)h\HֽȲo6  ,1tyۛ3 3f9p\u=3D+;F9'ك3EElg{;l{3W7bT <iΓn&a ,ǥ1.*ADrasNB.D BWFQ E< N,@Ǖafe޺gϼ/g nBYn,+=m/2ƠpV9{} w'Mimo06U IBp*4Dz>:6OÜ{ZL <+Tc׉t f_! sW^>9EڞoG'y{x'#{,]xH9e!j6)@v0M umu8xhLmo(bsdleNaw"O!?U<{Җ٤VQW+;m3Nm!)wo7dHLJ|w輔pyXRn]] c>]xA,fayaJنYYJ3ln0.px0|HSkS:;g@żOC:0Opyo ~E/`ɫۚ^M$I#mkgMHR %^b1neg1xU^wBM1D@(@X8[,*7@h%{c[ʷMڈ&&Ǭ<8@I^H)I5S\GmWq\Azvszk-s$j[9w>mB|/I:B-sh5X蟕L#HQ>V!csnWCҴ! CQ0ЂcR!m~xoIab6Uzd85®crD4>,J$ Z'۶* #xsЬ(&+AM0unƖi/vK8DCVmxiIHSIƴ t-B!.)͠< Ì?f8^*F6$i8!8ã9ʰ=&Td]hk{R"/yJiF2)Rp~z?1~%p] y\;v4`eBG)'-n 2W _N$ұn8B?H { y8f%<taL>vu~ݮLbUӺGwuh;anv0u.Qa:~($c>6ꐕ]'b'(u߶b$vqK`УLC1. ey*%מu]Xk yEa п?եi׆"+>O^: Ff t;S&!RJv|m3O]vH>F#+o:v ''m_AW}M) k\9;ɳM=M i<\?l{)3R'-mGlŜ:Wƻs/ "Hkm圷;;;H Hێ0[ oα(-D $@,|sf!m9 LB}o}TݢnRMƮ{6"7 f ƫH!A4MU>PA 7 @H|%& Y[@7M} ihA봡oBĢ ʰ{ad%[S'w(Z- y*(l)yEX֥8tvP&R d.'IrO|A;{=L*AIp}s6bORC_~KXT[`n" 0Id&JٍzIPqJy^N}qtyllY r~%_B+~KtQT8W-+dbK^1Bƶ51mT+%l|A ;t鷹m?.[ݝl1N?#軬Ct+!z" ;iee5 Fj[rqn3 88Y`ks`m7B)k }'K]@]{6DtjѰVp8-~~s/Ipy[ﷸ$`*~ߵ<&M[6: *0v$lC9%f_0?a<p£^8Vs,%mGӽ֠Q*\҆/ڞVd >/xO7 6 o[u.R®O_a^MJ-u7 jT ;"@hvCY' F>}5$pj^swQp4+({z{Qs1sNAe  K$0kGˬ'%?'vrw7o!('W:V9bٻsYEy} ̓g:Mzx_cginpQ` 9F?L}S__,F MuUmtLpm2x>?Iޛy/,<|ppUhun 1 Ƕ䵝=J]Rm , 蜹/஭O?3A<0ΥLae&a\ zxe "\ʗ%th ; $Ed |EC2r$Z6Y,ȁ@y/ 'st}.mptۨ$dH*JOp'eq P ASƢVKKÛ}9+n[^ r8}z[GsL%8B|񊃂3r㦳rFN+D=c.8d$Cy##|FCfSOl]ycU  _6Z < PЎ!:KPsz 7P.T[GרfJ'I: .n,zo1ݳ%NdV簿"[+YG~o+a0٠H'Be,XBIqnN+H HyT U>A;8:1y XrV"/E+ڬ75 mǨX&rЃe: 5\!x8U0_T~r~G8n tǽKC /H ̋ c7mH^* az <#˖Jgݓ%cO C&xP|3?v4-q eCKƒ US[ ~ IDAT]r5ŸhVݚ#7.9!W>*ib}B0$IPC<򦏆 u_Uuhb2muk46EUuCV,:>㉽ O>X{)3ū37`׃SIJ4BaəXef}L8 ΥkNZ4jk@ԠQU<2!Ly[CP5t̽}gN+d=_x-+j YXK$-$ dTyQ8HzAa;˛ Y3&zIC"s >e9M5f AҼHd'@^Apl },Ji*_)!d1?zV)@/ a }W!!lj2d,ϤDr .odF} I$y*\4uoa@3%..^ħxrv˪-_| :-ܺ ЭVE$u](᧯ql WŇQƣxd@XDk1ϷK%%ࠑ7=# sځwB$Yb@-^8i9#3[T,'g3ǿϯC1=I\tOLG^sV 7ЃqDUd׆Ṫq{)a)>;ld2M<*iE[%9Ìeuچi"H@%h8bu͍/xKEcYTڷ8K䰯t!ɯÄb Ū)S_5z'}}0,C۷Hk'rӰiy>ѭmx|;!i9FUUGePJ,+"t |~׳C]!dbcuK^6Şu1&kVUkJk.M`!omQuã |f%˧ƍ n8W`p7lp3&Q#'/o`V'S gfAM;| b_&lCކ/j=\;*JgK.R*0)WJzd9 IaYE C*GG쌭^ D>^ )!M`QRTy{ d)'kͳ$UuCu?tU) paG٢ƣ;i +?4VGy܇)߫+ hAXvP>WJBXN|2`ivhU:N%J "lζe\˲be{#'nON !c#yz0gf2cyӵ9Lb:-<7\9Ƌ/}k7Ws~'_ʯ駟n$g*M'H6DR #rC>1Ê v鰼R yB8٧.?{Х!F3( 4wbv>1 w9n]70EQWm9ґSF:s7u$USϖ<-ppw<%;Ȳ=sB"=YG`B8U9pdR%gg@h/@ 0b_ ZYMCr0.{8[֎S/wDhJLJ  -O$ d, ee~38iM$qqs7̲ϸW5"w"J^{B~;sgUF؜X2vݳQE#r=y1pd9{rZ'3ksaYB^du2y-}f:O]uqܢaT 8>>Ƴ>W_}S|_!//O} /_Ƴ>7nxeuɦk2w?['d؆#R]QU!GoK)R0]~|=|G 7&֍)|6!=w28$¸T@І;ppe<{FԤrx:#r\בdiI?LkG88Ɂ3AEFSu<WY)i>lrGW{7aze#]ȗi(ȴػvD dz!M5mE~ v v>ϓyA}*aςnp`|^[;C$dyọaJtQCT,`s ㅚV lXP ƽRșoCvó,N\iyYC7@"ƠY4Q2D0]uGy mtӓX uOkC{}>w|*Gt.,NŧmVGvQU>ӟ4|Iu??! ?s?~}6_/{Vuudi~u.C1 FTrԖ>­j,gmpu3Gnw-1[(j ܛ^G" a,}L79Gd-^PGZF7!PF,vZ@Q'Gƺ }>ΰ,Tw^uF uYAx.r7 ?rvpyء r,#02Ι-֒*"/RU]6/ m{aA 1? [#@xC`ȿ3!la36nwwǔyX+bGSvWu]'wfĊ/VŊHQP%XFѰ>̏ .wV~2fHg024; 82$2GeA/kIsZASB ܵΤp]3`JUD}L$t]jNNǡW3{9c H`-u#^W9Z"?ډIfÎ.«?$݆h&/#aެ~]9Vc<k [DVZ*V1/">s^~3#X[[?q4 L&<Bč7裏"c,//cyyD1?T5`ٲj݆!H$u凢f 3 [KߛxOq8yMR+FR'E 䒜Թ5rhYU:C障p8҄DhNx43$LJC\rcS ft09mfr|"t|@r˗vVNr$,+@Q,_"+3KQ AUDƈlj¶/US!OXi؟rߪ$JmƧy;p<|[:&V~?A0,st?p@Q7׷yDZZ-LS|??ӟ4qrrf9qf`3WųBi鷟/)ᓒ*C Y44 N8*BJ]gVB8ő&.7;ğ|w@K^^RǚlӉbqN􂋵0.ew\7)t3&6s y}jomp981bc`o[ EBGt[\&NcRs pL6h}sO}Sx0t0L @eޮn #?~Pe9;%f%ٵ5!M0@t:__x;@m_~ ;;;Ǚ3gbS "K*Tgay!˯!Wf4 t.udr>>!g%C;nM0Bb{AF됎G枌=^)ynZ>rr8;BUdR&B1Y0g`d|-'j);=a &c~,:pc׻ vHs5!$O&Ǜ;fۗm )_Wn`}\by= O]jqyuj'M frNm Ќ.1\!0v9D,^G r~ۇ7NF-A~I:Fxċ0$i%L[(c--؁ۍ- Fs2 FFK ^Jqa)1KF F ɨrUǭ`W0ј8enK{z~y{/} _җv_E)VVVpe\t =BQ*3WgOIHhs,/jEF:DBv6s:p4nk}`<+0s+I^@Ωy69-CH%ySǁ,.sK'Z؁||[ ƩKDyc3>¬;h0C`t@VDfd$k0$A02w;1War}@tgnU|cz'>t:B]z>O&.\X]]uP~$*"JP."CUl4n*S6C(cu~GRb0+p8]Hm ) 7u ҂"ϼpGH^0 V0yMrK:s?zD fYA!FUsioi.XdL-'{`=5lsi&G-i2,4D}<+l#HmHΚ"p)FWn>As"KCz8 }|IUSM‰+HH4%@6s9a3&k4?V5 n?-ߴ=\ן`ckk_\I;z-uF߾U9\SX?f7ŋԧ>U~I,[յD+KǁԑJ_GL~ԍU͸B."~Ǔ{֓qe0Ϻ\˯=s@m~ 4& k1CPZ"6%dT\F{sG K5cL4[k[6rEΗ6%Soau"%lTĐ r<id#+Dn`Sh1 lg#HW' ۲߂.& Pϩ2/rJ9 E9ՉQHJhgj6Bh ٞSS&L7}kd <ۍm5PO$MP3XINc\+ϴ|mPF 47jtZ>~=}B(*ǗӼјtudјw^ϹۜՎ~Zs0ʽEi2qT+k*v^ɐRB8C /i%nU2w!%9FYʔL[Ftci'qʅP[O\rAV$(>aD[(y:0a=aNu@•)1S綤F0kR垌gX6L&6缝cӔy 'LY9!/ftIW@0G 놡T,iJH4吚&I8e|K(K!3X=ܥ@tc՘3v9HϬTȥF7(p6fp;[ %fV9;s'v WVO&DEE>(uSnǼX%#( ?7NEPKgz*@)]τR/*c#ac{3`ӕq]8U,[y:es]E!&3qP!(*EP%T4tPYuETs <]$_ tw2WA :BܹetZuF:p%SHI f`;o!SHΞ-L(JNp8a;;z@8)#&0 LiK_aiY98rmHNGN<@REb<EuPXpsZyv[*^ q[%elŦ [ZnQt:M-qzpxITE)Z!XJ3Lѫ[o0"$@8R{g( djgsns>LYDpXiEA(U54\^SUi$fJ?GH30EP:ZD'Ur˸a*/c١ !o륲BWPH9ƻϴk#Ϟ؁xp3 cNːE[i &yx:Ό$2b3)'=!\36 N*w燬!,y4J ;k3vON{Y~ ҾMk4$RE$tĆ"@4iX-_ьXΉ~F/OXb=HPԱN,:pZF OO`fDL_50ʵ]pX 7iSO8@96/V-'#Ų-'H5v*W&Uآt,Oۍ9tی?z~.r\C/ u OmwmP*[V:L_NAQUN,;cfx̱pBt:HeX{0ddZkO_/+z3.UutQơNG ׭8{!rW֠U3E($u1!ecQ'rCGE8| Eh5\F5L8N%-PLiF{Fus NZUsf҃4NG ^EN{^dΏEin}JH)ꈄZb")B:>f ɡcfYftIC7}J;zx CxN\;Q.nwpc{i"!H&!g$Ayg4M)?2`Gh3H !%DH_B=7̰K03ҵo hamj?tdI9E7Q,!e6S= 2EBi(>2?y;1Yk$XwgA︰ĺH?U!9/#e2oVZX;t^U^,ee"[u,j2Ic`gŋ0+4`{i8ohZ{S d l$8@&Ў| @?iŗI\#!gsV_v5!_*dpy!yass!ܴQ$0ϰN3 ^<*ew{`+0~+A`Jv_C$|f$V MKy}`bz3I$Z*.;NCs(On'@^q4g|(שX tbC ,Zd,U5 寣EfRY3$#d~B'/f؁s9&vd"pIij71ibWR\~yyY<}O 'R6?_4j"p$\S,^2fP1S(.Hb6D@$1ڭS)0/i̲B-tńcJTU 34%1d2V-ɛ/̰oxZ8iB~3ƌ¢~F7>Ѿv~lvER_8x5L-k`Y=i$хM). h"(-$ %515'?ebvv0b{OKD~{w sǗtqʯ:M5 &DN ͇X]#CUѼIG$Z(rzChPi4x$1vQThϿ4ո@!`1sg[(;E&܅؉?ؙ!T'=;$Vz)90"SmRr,RRl1"!P@b"TIV05˓M`YAHP\׳NH֖8tE9a׈gڀ4KR4Xtom`bN?VBP :% p5:jɢ7wTy41B[7IV~"M==yHD71cnû/C$ZF=g9A'-MӮڜ yn搌;1_(7ԝFVlTVH(Wz((*~eKup uN*06].ar)CP:+G6 'Sדp2l < P8˦+P>һd uP1' wpF~'Po 3瀤@&Vv^#3`$ѫU,`G\͚o|㘙F%dضq FuD&)EI=LdH0$ ť$Ģ r 50H?HM>8DdIr 7r;$RK}`)0Mr,"ּ"'N#L RXaujkil#s53=f,ies qX]Ǒ ?}-E."Po42o F:;1NqkX]]ťKj0/1xzjxTTRg)1<[YD_D5~=hN!e,ՉDV4ON"urT࿮lز< JȻyOfx;8gucX*Y'6eGm0.NK6q٠(r^;[6;+"rڽ8̭Θrl6e˳#Pٮ]JK\i:i3%St- g/mF]jI錱( &]P_r0eMkcpXg!xfAIB]ϽqowBqs#8Boc `Rb8XihS2mm%ZIYʢNL^zm/ǷZVz`l@Nz}jxߝbwT`c8zw]ʂ~!_(ݘy{ͅ?SKO:arY/vW\//WWG3ECcܲΑex Tv׈8NĐaKl;F(ZNhw"L̋,F}fgP61KH9Tx*VG?=[⅒i%XF }sX-`i$Fi3^ΘxtiJ6 (.xNr7:HX?좼K6~ۃprvn8DR8efQDځ MG=$I%wB8[*J#8!/6r /Gѡ[ĜmPl<'t"=6pZ o?V<ģg[xnwqNec:!u  sƝl4A6m o|_C/oo}W^'(5;  :HS/ ?!)y2:By:7GG;UwGy)L@:CwosK9% {xh&qOq_$O(!8Hy~-zyUc˃F!Ҋһg6v(pz߻>4+-z- -AJ#!s{mEGX8@ zt( DA$N&0in7q2 FH%EX͡Q0;y!ь40Аhh0Y)E׃)4ݦ0z%Az+ L] dЖ,* MB3]TVj[棷 6/!|8zi4v84+pfZma &J <ȡAr0JB ^n!Й#4<]Zʢ[uCxByo7f ֓_ZZCٳg9f^}U!p ܼyo{ېx{!~PECJJ~RL2UE:m3Dnˮեn9!6⹼h BG̉%%w !Io<=; M!p!}Pcu#qN?Q _>yB'OE3J۶݆x&&9^6f"HbX+(5}{ᴑ>{Ml54b1vo4* U6:,/zNLoLioft6w\b90`0j=b F`\pn$MK\'E%٨ M%X,|;%;܌Ԋum|.#4WEN ݿӘ}| ` 8G߷%|'`gg_~wk_:|I,//qV:*t-ģo•Uր!F]5+oK!Ztu\ BG¡, 6X0]>vT^-!n\?w7W4ar~`ZZ8L1rsCcZt1V;Ùw/a21֐ҩ'LI}iC644`f t!:8 L\OLoN;rbAOb1$ɱ ؍vpG&R3pL%49H8I1OM"-5 )aQmYI+3 \J'~b }hʔ I^G%'a[%dp.$F66?l4VjL}VYt,"xo̜ xnf ;+1tj9uH"ol<ɚ- >)~~ KKK?__ŋ /ӟ4կ{-\Ero }UF^^:nE ԐїpBe08~>NfYq&č }}bGN&nrJNF;׏s71otP6_P<xkW_=Y*m%j-R75Y|+T󬢪Ng ~}!ͬ 461hcq/ MCcyˮNc*va.=Qp(["dXN@?H)}'SO_ϝT$҃7_l)k."5U,mEB:E2WUOi R05c׏xiod:uϨ '}wK8NČ`"SȄaF]0W:hHSsoyᮾhN6ht !T4-`4Nڨp趑ФUl^f+$syZG_/G8iC9Ӑ^oʃcgL_=5 3<ooVWWG>|3>hɟ[mP\HHF^&/*7x."HUSv2dOmg!l i$pZ:n2QA0/w{GS6{|Ζ9;jHZtYYDXjbhH(ROB =ۓf [ڧnca7fQ5$C:*CooJjPSe"sM9~m ]0S*ę6 fF|-f"}ۂGqD,g9s:RF@#1GSFFV"0΁qV H7U܂qcƦZH[m+ V7>c((WN]>Ӭ;#ܻFP5m|7fr rt'$ [f^vHZ)$@2;mC䒍3{4j|A`ǎvag4=~^dY0Ә主1g%q|uDQ%9sk׮aee+++h4A=qUvtAJcW HYU {Q%K?m;)ÿHFYٷLtTk gv9ƹyegZ-,$&~R#@iV(U23J^C(q{фu)|VӾ}\;3prF~&t^"_Fu' 2+9PBlpbˈ "!!2Hii2E/J_KrL}W?^8AGs-Hc7C Ġ:/Rb.j3@Y4o#:s~G&z&qbldIvmN! tߖu^`Dr=C:o.;I0R#^P #{j`" A\GW\qTF=s5́ͥLmaO~IN1==Sva&Ɏv-V۶0qZƍ)6W8J<).L33H S&vh7bs`KDPϝqa8gdZ csnqNZ*lfl]]'7&LsszqI:[ze c){qmY!dD_J&r-:TJvAAZlD9!p4) ? HSU$dx7UEA;9WՇk14:DZ)i\QVϲ#)sA[4e >4ऐ_XyTUʗ{ڣԞVVI 5VY ~3FRRg9i$N dY;8_Jl$gn4O:}E'DZ`p4B,_R.!+D`&!f9q4aKZ7]p"z\7}rN, 1Z{@V*rb!'8VO 9Dy-'+$bF,oJ,uR ~UJ_^oz؄pQ#PΘ~3qkǣ"-wȫ73)m,Ǖ1+fΤ,s8IZ1I:_w&YQ +T[M<Λ ?8(aKVH?4+A淙g&/eӁ ;*zxݞS5>- s(N`+vbٮM*h> *LBTęP-dp=P1 2WfUE([ɺ}\e>vc..1֌f7ǘ9}`"RVE|kaRG"r(:/#;u>El02i҇Xvm9]$׈{:@܉ػHlΜ-z7'`,fWΔ՝!VW; a M^C 0*RDiH)ي"=(h)X@wTM2j|-ED_y&G>Ͱ>ΰw8(c6X[`4d$W@H;Hb>{ǴDI LmlQhL$0D+JK"@˚eY./ LgN&Eq 33b ooNk-2/ ݭH#մ&H,{<Ŭ87 3`m3qρ 6jYxD}FRDvc2fxNJ- /V HX:j<]4A:ei̡!u'0ͤzCqT_7.BKH0] EiQ#VUtQdުEjhi\? LJ9lQRN&OΖe9.gtt~(zwXJ!0St[M[¢p4)pn7B`c4)AH/)H TaDIGYBd'V][XR(YŹdA}ci4MNq.I~[=яmz_;F3e(LL,J<-u4bdV% L" Њcڒ*$:f!ъLB`aZOA-J%O&"akJ*H?vF p_l$;3Ev (ѷIӿ70Ɏ]K#<}fMz`_bΦ{ [?꘬D፦  e:DՔEQ֝*gz1H)oǂqZ1ױ J*c"v\p([v,2̺QPӰEe/#[!.>.;t^ΡfP/xfY/4PQRQ4.L|q { Cgِ:/j!ur&y0]1qbwi3v$c}"i`4##mS!r'_3]%ÐU鶋-sZOLȎ'Ȟ& !X[ xEڶ껲21M\4ϐ' e!d#oxR&j!Iٛpʹltn`[h-]ㄝɢs Kb đ:o$G:[d ˦5Vv!Q1Vd6eZY "9~E6a&]B1 ?`RW]}Q\QոKLAE ߴc]o4lIstٵ*Qv8^V\U#m0ߓc?wW֥ S!9, !\I͛y󦓮{Ae~:vvvmDQ(ppp_V ϟG[?J!Ο?U!enܸ7n`}}ΝC=4tHq!fdXƮP&խp3-$zLJ* ^%7 \L1NbN6ݠ䘿$@XRiɓuD !.[d#Cd%'kL`VG4={ٹ쯪t*  s}QzݭU\= H `Its&GcO"&*EbB`r S)0X /aP[P,u'CFip<ͦcI+"EJ}Q {wvbVv|EI?Oو?](I|ltiƘ9&3>$H;5ddV`KZ1{ [)&΀}se9'Z]cR(`"gO"?ߝ߻Sm|d4F0խ\3uӛX82|k_>Μ98^x^..\p=x ={>,}Q\t ;;;W%F#\z=7_OOamm F#<|ЀuR\ /;Hբ,V5tUDxz)B=K}] .駟O?3g੧¹s{{{b<cgg??v|+x'c=K._SO= .-0)wP+hQV#!^ )Ks΢TYV{ O@Aʃ98gN`%wHS.;% 㾌k*5: `K F97fwS0*pG$Xn\q2@>6V[m|Iљ ppX fa̿zcn$?`d&ߌq~q!/E;'3 $c9sѦzb1(ˡvV"(c\9Ҧ9bT;/ujH;y^$ku;;(䞮(c>t6ɞDJt:׾6)s:$:]x<ϱ!>f&!vEQ`<U(Rşրn堲(BEQ燕p*|2qa lt\ ́iFu&s*C;IFB%+L |Fdزo?c&Y#,DZpoݺG*ps~njTan%BR 6⅝[ii}<VNP|l&PHJo'?bd^ɢ{i y)K)$óWOkX5'e@O^NaZDب|8sRגk+ͳ )S8iws^c&Vz &Ѥ@aƃ$X8hL>8~+xnD,# -~`Av:+u,s lllիW\>>#If3y$Q4EeȲ FC$h4899 ͦh40N10Nɓ9>O[iii =666j+:­w }[=.c4+,AӇupuz._w!~&[u4B83$"1W _$3] u2֣ sGH;UZ#-DԤy7 Zȥrn1<3eO,梆\ L 썍Rpujۍ^: F' W%7XZGCs<1`0jKݳ_|&V)(ތTy3Q!c !qOs=r:7bF(oox{h49y?#?8s挆RMB΄l$g.$IECr@Qh6f&QHԼ$QI8{,|AP$vq#ჷ]=T'LP zv.pm; 9cJG?WG#E?bs:`H =ǖhZL,0,'amVU:яGҔZ#zBiul"5q`u:\s*qd~!;|)% \]nڎkga_0 &&L4ӱi_RbZ(ǷЭmGibCi5'^|:T}wr<l"MSZ-F#5NL&XZZBQxW0Nh40t)4dL&HI ``*^zarD457>%EX0WsiX`P+YM;zڏzɉw*o6SrM#y=s+0 %338yi3mv/2ˁ4|`[ӎ3߶KUCBU}aS5ՙZF,wS儥rƅ+@b߀L"D;B}z(̟hjIvQ峖.k&o"g> &_^O]žMLYlیYe նsQten>oXB/|{_JӌyʎE,-Z~#MSynݭ.UݻUvI`8c1ZS9lGÆ9p>K.aww?8~~O]= bcx8A(#?SMCʊvjꫯb<_:/c8ի~ qp5={NKKKxW0L+`iil*OWE UU_+ke u2R|`I hɨhj#[ SGNN T(Œ9y|Trpseh^T1\?c8alѡ(' n#Qw&C!*BdiDp&q8r`P 0F T?ddDY2}k$TD#AkRGepni ,]DH$5ѿLT^ Q(۶̾vcp+@1;cof1`!.#v ?_o|?#?8qus=HxaV#IʢHq:KgϞuDŻ.|_SO=gGAC=}.wcyy~=_Qǽދfw׿{xGszbU*RP(} 3* >N.lf"~u)~nuF'vi+2%'{a0#}HZ;-*a2/Ϥ*|I" `>4E8E {AQF+Cںp[ E؂+e 6|9YX&P?`Ӽ*S=ۀ()1ΐ j#bia6ՕZڋLOy-8AW-t1svc ?_oBK6g =ݰ)_ {zxlΊˎBU[f\/EK\uf:[n?q9E}t]꽁n[üâ#__vmo{;…8<>яb:/R#y<>sW~Wd*UUN*KPC/ U#t%uQH+^;s&'CB";l-Kg+UoaG}8,Kt2%CSI;hƨ!|:x?zm 3)&$D#OR]\|rQdwi& wgԍ\d.n%'%~Hg 둽Nͼc©N%!9{LA5j=rH^@/s8ZtD8ϼ%cM+pXKc%%gEXch8V.Lc24,f~ڇH$CIxV ( sbHqP9[{w?|{%|deN1bea.kLbPlHrSr0ڶe?5Mo?y|O>7o⥗^׿u|S=gRx*3-F5:DRjlYI^\X9+M_Hg߁:Df7%\ڧ\++Wo؜w_ow7Bu_[ǟo|:t6}mxԀs o*RXovjA6JM}YU4QJrOyiC-XEeI=a dPJuz2WVGkqp|lv@Y@YΜigc1˦>HEa;%*."|-$ Eo"d0~_-ұTZF߸^v21%K. sNPoN=9]7n%|k_÷-|WUܸqgo+_ {1|_ݻw{CoLP:Dkg(9};.߻w/y_Qc-!NC.K--DKD&޷s0Ǐ^|?E|U6^x&'ܙ+M<<'Z',ԌޏN$;xp0ǵ%!&,d؞69 }flZۡ0sNHe "ac#}הp +-nnlI|EGK4 e16.TƸL9#DDŽ tWR/އ_X6EEy0qxHaG,#1}v]P@[`0M #bg|:M:a# v|e~eF#y+˶X. q޽_)^/ s۶vq?/X A}5X>Iڨ嫿~l<>>666s׉zU=9/2δ.1R'c ö빺v_M|Vm°+!$WZOo'6n f1 ܽwv=)+3@:;Y NWr RCa0ǿ}?Hds͍Ue9leڟ76_^wfkcreʖ(";v.V]A-KqT֙0Df sͿ9JDW6-#',^z&D7WC%RzD4 'УB'&3 }KA%?M~gDs,;FB}@ &$2Fs`XODŽebޟ-8Lj(~-B'>jIl} _Zܾ:œqE;)o0ƠWH׃Ա '&ڞX~vb*%a=>H`3@/{(gs9e1kX6%vC9u=v43m;[fR,~/ SA0868>?r2ן*押nlbjJJd! v%CKN,`Zyn#Ci˕0pك1w`5fx go~%ҏ /& v f0n D/41sirS3QaYXLAe/9 'oJ8c+c&2}܋gi1/c#(d\B s'bs[ZF99#S n]]fkcLG$AGNtq*.0)&x SwBugc^¥pDY ;_d@a9=0f 8cW626:ٞbg]J. seb$ㆎQW\8(26/KJK>-q'æ-[#CĶ&Z]׿v/ӘuP}jnB 3=+OSX[iYsr>ed aYw3#B!$I±"~Y|3"Bfx2I 1Ndq:@~w0[}$qnIj}EI1h2'ǣQm %FmpL?̾Kiӵd7EO*_FP]QD ,ŸZWLRn\l蜩Kmm8O̹X}<,>3v9e5lZ! ]Fk6}̑Q@`or,1F|#7 /x@&!{Bt2(h"Px2G9DMR߆q G2'IHP9BdV Wdn/ |)Ǒ 1"՘\Eآ3NNKީ"ӌJ^&:S2 @&0OnvRm畭1zL0JFL3bVѤk= .>+>f|9̎G]8~&Hm{JvtXbY2x(!dTfܹ=%{r>}db+Hyb&"<{{]?1vÙ;"*W6?SNnHJ|um,יNZyzɘʼn :yLAc(.V"j~ oO5c[d 1oLZi·{#fS1-б!12\PGD4K4CXw.pׅd3Vi!^w)[`~jw s"Abo'Ђo>\$ri.4}O/Rk'ŭw߹ ^rtkx%ZZN(g)O^$R v{жyi%4Ԩ>֒2+^ӗ#KmIW)k;0:l(3< m; f[9!o?yEBE:i)vwMg !F2) "O)NqI^i;|тs Pd qxcfDy~EtegymΕj0/(T35OL8`rDӶH؏qI\-׭Rs+K K)W|E)cN^\0 #GQC$A0Dp.}Bcv3TߗmCch\n?hJ'MmBJm. s%cy-ˮ/+4R ;-9` P 1/Js:J8k)G m;+6#:oXsIg~듏/<.dIۛK^O^-5.%^m#faԪj.2qY;Xөg+(IiI16؟m9\U%\Ŀ& Zssg2]T!p#l0)NRK&cb8eI'줜1@f,jj1f7Ʈ>pQm?{} }[4ohb!Z^r3`5# R!m$g[BXbq^]rC\[KQ ~ck& $X!:Qvv0Nt(BZ@'m)9NQ>~BtcA#an1 ޢs0fsA; Y.ı~%)l^/qܓ:a'l_Uj~uX(HOYN 2SB]$N rCuHʌ ӒDۨs9~S~՝#{{m2-o/(9}%gH|t\{\w,$7X7SW-%&_"vk웵98dg%`}_6RsmCxkkq}Gv2qFoIaK"ytq;mD_Ntm^8ךeNHsQ;u2敮l\撌 }?Z3$ӊj;R#}g Cf[VDŽ1au1_(]a:j0n6 6'-.p`X8/|}o%KGvө,.&H1>hGx ~־e, ľ{jb3LbFB("RBƯ?a/l f1GIR㖍P~F|ǕW&:{xo>ԒkWOR.m_\œg1rm)Rޒ< ^̑>#K!#Xj}CCe1IK'7>tlO1jۛ w%Ɍ-^C 6J~B d@5l}poU wq8OgɐU)tVt)?m I{X56½#8ƄmޑtDX5pa{͕"!xppqIK8Zt|8b9UڎJH&=EқI;ơ10bCOAfClRĕcu:6|}(w*`L4fibB.$GE/>QDNlw*MBqFl;T*pY<Ʊ\*'/Gb. -\Zi2^Nj<07%%Y'IDATŵvZWpIKvva6r:̜>Zwd[j:j8$HO&_[Eۤ:& >rw۫mG'O նVIy( I/9wXPcG؟6hSE|G:I,+3! 768u֯/WVGhshд WsV& T.9ﻊ/g:R?ϗ A,;(c1q$ f.Z2 .?9.O"MǨP {, ~̉ f'N`Za.-zI/7qDۡӹl3YDgl* ]s%T.^re`J4YLycnjBkiF]"TZ5e>ԂCl3^ϕ Yeـ(uw+{}x6|6HK$/wtP9Q R|I1cp &ID̟-WF5צ98>ns&cs|Ks0sy>/3 {'w=D:JP IIIO P*,B=τ&le%/ƅT@e@"=SX0k7hlu#7jMd Rwgxs(E}ce-WNhOὈFL/s ǐ;t9 U{ޘuαmDtZҷkdsdߒ=ì blO['G!5K^\"5۫#|-_DuIIDL&r,H:b}pk-mi6 ^[`aseIiq++-5m6np}}3ƞ%>j 2mt4}9-4GKdI4;]*30ahXdMF[ OЩI&5uj<.XTY"ÙzĚCJݙ=)NQ+#OƇ1VC/k;Gx?oRY |_\՘6%C^N ]N""1'3v[f4'$AzuHMtl? :e Yl_Ҿœ!_zv6-&e.:rׄx釈TBAvOr"!eLqHsj/,3+#Dã֧%dڴ-Q9 +!T91.D+ Ɨx٤!u {/  *Re]2K:0fHxL!IJ4tP]ڭd 3ӫHߺ%vE]ԱA AXs⏈Qc~8[wډcmsAnW~lQ͖|UAT5$BK Fxw@n?'\Y&:j͕E7-K o}{=r^v&_X3S9ٗZ>9E}0d0ֈGjr,OA `i6o( !˒!gӾ_6N-V^_?5fnS|^@g,M+ߞ s'Ssx*:ʎeۜrtG&1+("-zKutP]5NA:9BԑLϪ5#ۓX?A_]&p:.p: %GAn[SE׿?!1?q}d9/G|rC{WۼmOo.㐼YXj;3v5r\2n(-(!OZIȪ=m"wPҁ~m/y{eO>uºP'骘b[]#s m{ȴp`{@ Էu.Fl8 ZdiV}ƨ{:}0Wv8a:$)g~-7Ft1%W'-gl`m}R XJl"MC[Pi?+81QHf~E"8Kɶ}4HYNI)vF]sli6io21)e*gF[C]l0HJ?3?64񪈩 HK摒2,viqV#p1pVK Hz$l?fp˛k8L))#vD{c u xwL\H' ;`V4lK)fm H0;ǾupmmLNRuJzl*u\6f[721:5<%ݹ\Yki̹ydž5]vԶFrtT"9BjeNgHPdWT9_RksR=`.+Wzt>y $/%x-.7 6&-& ֧-'OOZ. s'>%DŽW/= f#@:4N|E<<%Y!h|pGGxx))A%Iacݚ9MwU]cZ_ʕ`;Z" r6)D!8+c X9mc5q_ W2*4=OH!1Sc dMv4gBh1__k9M_R>d4wPv^oL9Y5"zј&aZ}GZ!RIa-q/k$.CaId --cIJ ,;Y kחCKm/s|H.ڟ~VqٶE``I;~hbϵK$vse^Y}DmVGNgl !N`~^홄u` D_x:ћyCqJ[>(kBsu`| 1Sr)VCI({wL $tˆ*((w\)B)fq63,4a7WQg [aX`bR2m'cX&>i~9l(̆ j]gcU"? %uJe eaΕ/C<&Hv6[y%{t}+[?k̍Nv.9a9EFІvLi22% Lv aarnvޘ-e1;>/D$N!JҋgA$8=lpGϭ{81$I\6bV&$)8-Я IH A|N:=w5.MӤv}$(j̩]mUu".rg%Z25J\:},[]O;~"!vCiye/H#`J~WZ]_Kz)kz%C/20k6ں}ʨ*>9u^zF;DFK;#n!}nqX}F.sɆ>9|gOkxc'~7lc@TE()~I֮.fDet ,HZMٍSbv#31Pd%9 ס3g1 꺤]#LG!p$%鋽PiPv[$`=}K!nUn%cɅiĚ:կDh( V l}VV"/}j .6d_촘,599>n2,9Ov}IENDB`
Warning: fopen(http://spatialanalysis.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Screen-shot-2010-09-27-at-09.25.58-630x210.png): failed to open stream: HTTP wrapper does not support writeable connections in /var/sites/s/spatial.ly/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-image-editor.php on line 430
Maps with ggplot2

Maps with ggplot2

The ggplot2 package offers powerful tools to plot data in R. The plots are designed to comply with the “grammar of graphics” philosophy and can be produced to a publishable level relatively easily. For users wishing to create a good map without too much thought I would recommend this worksheet. For those without their own shapefiles who rely on the “maps” package they may wish to consult Hadley Wickham‘s ggplot2 book. Data Requirements: London Sport Participation Shapefile. Download (requires unzipping) poly_coords function. Download Install the following packages (if you haven’t already done so): maptools, RColorBrewer, ggplot2 Click here to view the tutorial code....

Read More

Posted by on Aug 5, 2010 in Resources | 1 comment

#ffgeo: Follow Friday for all things geographical.

Just for a bit of fun and to help those of us with interests in all things geographical, spatial, GIS, maps and cartographic (I could go on…), I thought I would add “geo” to the usual Follow Friday (#ff) twitter hashtag to create #ffgeo. So if you have particularly enjoyed the geo-related tweets from one or several people this week, list their user names and include the #ffgeo hashtag so that fellow lovers of all things geo will know to check them out. It may not take off, or it could be come a weekly event. Either way you can monitor progress below or...

Read More